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2019-08-22

Promote clean heating in winter in northern China and make use of clean energy as much as possible

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Haze treatment is still one of the core contents of environmental protection treatment in the next few years, and the intensity of pollution control will be strengthened in the future. Industry insiders generally believe that to solve the problem of burning low-quality coal, clean heating will be the next key work to control haze. Promoting the development of the clean heating industry can not only meet the needs of residents for indoor comfort temperature, but also reduce pollutant emissions, help protect the blue sky, improve energy efficiency, and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. To establish the image of a responsible big country in China to actively deal with climate change. 


According to incomplete statistics from the Clean heating Industry Committee, by the end of 2017, the total heating area in northern China was 23.2 billion square meters (15.9 billion square meters in urban areas and 7.3 billion square meters in rural areas), of which 41 percent had achieved clean heating. The area reaches 9.5 billion square meters. There are 7700 enterprises involved in clean heating throughout the country, with a total revenue of 820 billion yuan. 


Although clean heating has achieved important phased results, a reporter from the China Economic Guide learned in an interview that there are still some problems in the development of the industry, such as lack of top-level design, "out of shape" in policy implementation, and so on. Experts suggest to promote clean heating in winter, to take local energy, multi-energy complementary.


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Clean heating is not just the use of clean energy for heating

 

"the use of bulk coal has made an important contribution to the pollution of the heating season in the north." Wang Jinnan, president of the Planning Institute of the Ministry of Ecological Environment, said at the "first China Clean heating Industry Summit" held recently, "for example, PM2.5 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region mainly comes from both industrial and civil aspects, of which winter is dominated by civilian sources. Other seasons are dominated by industrial sources. " 


It is understood that the haze pollution in the heating period is obviously more serious than that in the non-heating period. In essence, the treatment of haze should reduce the total amount of pollutants emitted. The use of natural gas, biomass and other clean fuels, to achieve the replacement of coal, to promote the development of clean heating industry. 


"Clean heating is not only the use of clean energy heating, but also refers to thermal energy production, pipe network transmission and distribution and user use of the whole process of energy conservation, clean and environmental protection." Zhou Hongchun, director of the Clean heating Industry Committee of the China Building Energy Saving Association and a researcher at the Development Research Center of the State Council, said in an interview with the China Economic Guide. "the real clean heating refers to the cleaning of the whole heating process, the multi-energy composition of heat sources, the high efficiency of energy utilization, the intelligence of heating management and the comfort of indoor temperature." In Zhou Hongchun's view, this should be the goal orientation of the development of clean heating industry in the future. Promoting the development of clean heating industry can not only meet the needs of residents for indoor comfort temperature, but also reduce pollutant emissions and improve energy efficiency. 


The Central Committee stressed that promoting clean heating in winter in the northern region has a bearing on the warm winter of the broad masses in the northern region, and whether haze can be reduced or not, is an important part of the revolution in energy production and consumption and the revolution in rural lifestyle. In accordance with the policy of giving priority to enterprises, promoted by the government and affordable to residents, it is necessary to make use of clean energy as much as possible and speed up the increase in the proportion of clean heating. 


The 2017 "Government work report" proposes to resolutely fight a blue sky defense war, comprehensively implement comprehensive management of bulk coal, and comprehensively eliminate small coal-fired boilers in urban built-up areas at and above the prefectural level. The relevant ministries and commissions will take joint action to formulate special plans, clarify relevant objectives, promote the cleaning of coal-fired heat sources, promote natural gas and electric heating in line with local conditions, vigorously develop renewable energy heating, and make effective use of industrial waste heat resources. We will comprehensively abolish bulk coal heating, speed up the transformation of old heating pipe network facilities, and vigorously improve the energy efficiency of thermal customers. 


With the vigorous promotion of the central government, local governments at all levels regard clean heating as an important political task, people's livelihood task, and urgent task. In 2017, a total of 5.78 million households have completed "coal to gas" and "coal to electricity." Among them, more than 3.94 million households replaced coal with electricity and gas in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and surrounding areas, reducing bulk coal consumption by about 10 million tons, and more than 56000 small coal-fired boilers. "starting from the optimization of heat sources, various localities have explored and formed different modes of coal reform." Zhou Hongchun said, "among them, there are coal reform models that make use of clean heat sources such as sewage / river source heat pumps, shallow geothermal energy, air energy, low-grade industrial waste heat biomass energy, solar energy, electric power, natural gas energy, and so on. There are also clean use of coal burning coal reform model, as well as a variety of energy complementary, warm, cold, hot water and other clean heating new business type. "

 

Challenges remain in the replacement of bulk coal

 

However, it is worth noting that while fully affirming the achievements, we should also see that in promoting the replacement of heating bulk coal, In some places, there are some problems, such as lack of top-level design, "alienation" of policy implementation, improper technical route, insufficient consideration of farmers' bearing capacity and so on. Even in some areas, there are some problems, such as lack of predictability of transformation, policy swing, shortage of gas supply and so on. In the report on the Development of China's Clean heating Industry recently released by the Clean heating Industry Committee, the problems encountered in the current bulk coal replacement work are explained in detail. 


First, the lack of top-level design. Although the relevant state departments have issued plans and policies to vigorously promote the "coal to gas" of winter heating, but in the selection of heating sources (what is the approximate proportion of various heat sources), technical routes, economic costs, and clean heating targets, And with the development of China's economy and the improvement of residents' income, what to do about heating in the south, and why there is only a lack of basic research support on some directional and principled issues, such as heating in winter, and there is no consensus. In promoting the replacement of bulk coal, various localities have not adopted measures in line with local conditions, and there have even been cases of quite a thousand people who violate science and work hard and quickly. 


Second, the implementation of the policy is out of shape. In some places, the principle of "suitable electricity is electricity, suitable gas is gas, suitable coal is coal" is one-sidedly understood as the priority of "changing coal to gas and electricity". In some places, the changed "lowest price" policy has been adopted, resulting in the problem of "big horse pulling cart" or "small material". Some heating projects can not be put into operation, and even explosion accidents have occurred. In some places, the construction enterprises of bulk coal replacement projects are lack of experience, or become "half-pull projects" because of the lack of funds. Some localities lack the necessary supervision over enterprises, and even form a "community of interests" with enterprises, without the expected effect of allowing the masses to warm through the winter. 


Third, the technical route is inappropriate. In some places, blowing up thermal power plants with thermal efficiency of more than 95%, or building heating centers far away from the use of heat, not only reduces the efficiency of cogeneration, but also increases the cost by adding heat transmission pipelines. Some places blindly promote the heating of central heating facilities such as electric boilers (heat storage) or distributed electric heating facilities such as heating cables, electric heating films, heat storage electric heaters, and so on, with a thermal efficiency of less than 40%. Some departments have allocated coal-to-coal targets for rural housing that is unwarm, uninhabited and even demolished, and claim to have completed the coal-to-coal reform task of these houses, wasting a lot of money. 


Fourth, it is not enough to consider the bearing capacity of farmers. According to the investigation and understanding, the burden on the masses in individual areas has increased several times, and there are still situations in which coal is changed to gas and cannot be burned or warmed. In some places, regardless of the national conditions of resources, natural gas, which is not rich in resources in our country, is used as a heat source. Layers of coding indicators and undemonstrated hasty construction have not only affected the daily life of the masses. It not only changed the local culture of "a family hot Kang Tou" in the northern countryside, but also affected the satisfaction of the masses.

 

Adopt the correct way to promote the work of replacing Coal

 

In order to effectively solve the above problems, it is necessary to use the correct method to promote clean heating in winter, "local energy, measures to local conditions, multi-energy complementary." Zhou Hongchun told the China Economic Guide, "the heat source of heating should be the primary issue for discussion. Coal, electricity, gas, heat and power cogeneration, gas source water source heat pump, geothermal, industrial waste heat, straw and other renewable energy, low-temperature nuclear energy heating and other ways to choose, and the key is to adapt to the local conditions, according to local conditions, multi-energy complementary. Reuse the wasted, emitted energy. " At the same time, Zhou Hongchun said that it is necessary to provide subsidy policies and price support to ensure that ordinary people can use and afford to use "coal to gas" and "coal to electricity." 


Industry experts believe that in order to take correct measures to promote the work of replacing coal, we should make overall planning, popularize the mature experience and business model of advanced and applicable technology, waste heat supply, cogeneration and water source gas source heat pump can be used as the priority of clean heating. The utilization of waste heat from waste power generation can not only "turn waste into treasure", but also an important measure to change "neighbor avoidance" into "neighborhood benefit". The realization of heat source supply-intelligent management-building energy saving and low carbon integration is an important guarantee to improve the level of heating energy saving and low carbon emission reduction. The use of existing power plants (including coal-fired power, power generation) waste heat, paved with steel mills, chemical plants and other industrial waste heat, can achieve the effect of energy saving and emission reduction. 


Academician Wang Jinnan also put forward a similar technical route-suitable electricity is electricity, suitable gas is gas, suitable coal is coal, suitable heat is hot, and ensure the safety of the masses in the northern region for the winter. 


In this regard, Academician Wang Jinnan said, "the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and its surrounding areas and the Fen-Wei Plain are key areas and should be promoted as a whole in villages and towns or districts and counties. Before the heating season in 2020, the plain areas of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei and the Fen-Wei Plain basically completed their daily life and winter heating bulk coal substitution, and actively promoted clean coal in areas that did not have the alternative conditions for clean energy for the time being. At the same time, Wang Jinnan also calculated an economic account: from 2018 to 2020, it is estimated that 19 million households of clean energy replacement for bulk coal will be completed in 26 cities and Fen-Wei Plain in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and its surrounding areas, reducing coal combustion by 47.5 million tons. The emissions of SO2, NOX and smoke dust can be reduced to 185000 tons, 36000 tons and 236000 tons, respectively. 


In addition, for the effective promotion of clean heating in the northern region, Zhou Hongchun suggested that the replacement of bulk coal should be carried out step by step, and avoid "one size fits all". In his view, "changing coal to gas" and "changing coal to electricity" is due to the large amount of nitrogen oxides, soot, PM2.5, and sulfur dioxide emitted from the original boiler, so it is necessary to change "coal to gas" and "coal to electricity," but it is more difficult to change it directly. We can start with briquette and high efficiency smokeless coal furnace. 


Of course, for the clean heating industry chain related enterprises, the role can not be ignored. 


Zhou Hongchun told the China Economic Guide that, for example, as the first link of clean heating, the construction unit must be based on a century-old plan and have the concept of sustainable development. At the same time, the selection of equipment should be matching and scientific, and the use time should be prolonged as far as possible. As an operation and management enterprise, it is necessary to make an intelligent platform that can give full play to the actual effect, and optimize the configuration of primary heating and secondary heating. "the outdated production equipment and backward technology are the major problems of heating enterprises. With the gradual tightening of the requirements of ecological and environmental protection, the requirements of equipment renewal and technology upgrading are becoming more and more urgent. When technological upgrading and transformation comes to the ground, enterprises need a lot of financial support. " Zhou Hongchun said that the participation of financial enterprises can promote the green development and high-quality development of the clean heating industry.


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